Factors, Systems and Methods of Business Communication These three elements of communication within organisations are being taken together because they all postulate guides for making communication within organisations effective. Of course, by organisational communication, we mean communication between and among units and personnel in an organisation. The chief executive needs to reach all segments and staff of his/her establishment, sometimes in groups of varying composition and, sometimes, individually or unit by unit. Other managers and functionaries of varying ranks and domains of authority need also to reach all members and all units under their control. Of course, information must also flow back to all these managers and functionaries. With regard to communication, we have to conceive of an organisation as a webbed organism in which the stimulus-response phenomenon operates continuously in order to keep the organism alive. This concept could be illustrated diagrammatically as in Figure below
Factors of Communication Meaning They are the constituents of a piece of communication which must be individually adequate and appropriate and effectively handled in order for the whole communication event to be effective. A communication event here may be a lecture or talk, a briefing session, a meeting, an interview, and so on. Factors tend to relate more particularly to communication with masses of people (such as at a lecture or a foreman’s briefing of his workmen at the start of a day’s job), but they can also apply in varying degrees to individualized communication in both the oral and written modes.
 Components The idea of factors of communication was originally formulated by Adair (1973:24) in his concept of the Communication Star.(image below)
However, it will be recollected that we included the Factors of Communication in our Figure 1.3.1. (Elements of Communication in Module One, Unit 3), and that, in that chart, the factors were extended to include two more factors, i.e., Reviewer (or Editor) and Organisation and Form, two ideas borrowed from Gallagher (1969)

The Constituents (i.e., the Factors) There is really no need to deal with the subject any further because, as we said a while ago, factors are really a concern for communicators at high levels and for those (such as speakers) who deal with groups of people.The Systems and Methods of Business Communication In the next section of this unit, we shall discuss Methods of Communication. Perhaps we should point out at this stage that the distinction between systems and methods is not usually very clear to some people and, indeed, is not recognised by some communicators. However, it is possible to conceive of systems as larger categories which contain or embrace a number of individuals

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